Survey Paper

Mark E. Pittelkau, "Survey of Calibration Algorithms for Spacecraft Attitude Sensors and Gyros", Paper No. AAS 07-295, AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Mackinac Is., MI, 19–23 August 2007, in Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, Vol. 129, 2008, pp. 651–705.

See the presentation

(55 pages, 3 figures, 199 references)


This paper is an historical survey of algorithms for ground-based and on-orbit calibration of attitude sensors and gyros on spacecraft. These algorithms include attitude-independent alignment calibration algorithms, the classical Davenport gyro calibration algorithm, and various Extended Kalman Filters. The calibration algorithms are outlined and compared, and an assessment of the algorithms is offered. Attitude maneuvers required for calibration are also discussed.


1. Introduction
1.1 Organization of the Paper

2 Attitude Sensor Alignment Calibration
2.1 Batch Least-Squares Methods for Alignment Calibration
2.2 Reference Frames For Sensor Alignment
2.3 Augmented QUEST Algorithms for Alignment Calibration
2.4 Kalman Filter Methods for Alignment Calibration
2.5 Other Methods for Alignment Calibration

3 Magnetometer Calibration
(this section refers to another survey paper)

4 Gyro Calibration
4.1 Early Gyro Calibration Algorithms
4.2 Davenport Gyro Calibration Algorithm
4.3 Sequential and Recursive Davenport IRU Calibration Algorithms
4.4 Delta-Bias IRU Calibration Algorithm
4.5 Augmented QUEST Algorithms for Gyro Calibration
4.5.1 BICal IRU Calibration Algorithm
4.5.2 Extended QUEST
4.6 Batch Least Squares Gyro Calibration
4.7 Other Gyro Calibration Methods

5 Filtering Methods for Gyro Calibration
5.1 Gyro Bias Estimation
5.2 Extended Kalman Filters
5.3 Unscented Filter for Gyro Calibration

6 Redundant IMU (RIMU) Calibration
6.1 Early RIMU Calibration Algorithms
6.2 Pseudo-Linear Filtering
6.3 RIMU Error Modeling
6.3.1 RIMU Misalignment Model—Rotation Vector Parameterization
6.3.2 RIMU Misalignment Model—Euler Angle Parameterization
6.3.3 Scale Factor Error Modeling
6.3.4 Misalignment Vector Decomposition
6.3.5 Body-Referenced Parameterization
6.4 Fully Observable RIMU Calibration
6.4.1 Parameterizations of the RIMU Calibration Model
6.4.2 Observability
6.4.3 Body-Referenced versus Fully Parameterized Model
6.4.4 Parity Vectors and Fault Detection
6.5 RADICAL RIMU Attitude Determination and Calibration Filter

7 Calibration Maneuvers

8 Parameter Tracking
8.1 A Misalignment Model for Orbit-Period Variation
8.2 Solar Maximum Mission (SMM)
8.3 Thermally-Induced Misalignments
8.4 Temperature-Dependent Gyro Parameters
8.5 EKF Parameter Tracking
8.6 Calibration of the Laser Pointing System on ICESAT

9 On-Board Real-Time Calibration
9.1 Spitzer and Cassini (JPL)
9.2 JWST
9.3 Draper Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC)

10 Future Developments in Calibration

11 Conclusion



A. Acronyms


Copyright © 2021 by Mark E. Pittelkau and Aerospace Control Systems, LLC